Basis of Ordering Instruments


The instruments in this catalog are grouped in five categories based on the Hornbostel= Sachs classification, and each group is arranged more or less according to the external appearance of the instruments.


Order of Entries in the Descriptions


316 rebab


body: wood, with parchment of water buffalo bladder over the front

face: L.113.7cm.

soundholes: 5, in the middle of the back; string:2, brass

bridge: 1

bow: 1

range: ca.2 1/2oct.from c; tuning: c-g 


The player sits cross-legged and holds the instrument vertically,in front of him. The bow is held in the right hand and the tension of the bow hair is regulated by pressure with the fingers. To reduce upper partials and thereby soften the tone quality, banana leaves more (recently tissue paper) are inserted between the two strings near the bridge. Used in gamelan ensembles wayang kulit. Used in accompaniment and various song and dance styles.


1. Catalog Number

2. Name of Instrument

      As a general rule pronunciation and spelling (romanization) is based on usage in the area. In cases where the name is not known, a generic name has been inserted in brackets. When a proper name cannot be determined, a question mark has been added. Ex. Shakuhachi?, [transverse flute], etc.

3. Name of Area, Name of Ethnic Group

When the instrument is from an area whose name or ethnic group is known, the name of the broad area or country is listed first, followed by the narrower specification. Name of country (name of specific area) name of ethnic group.  Ex. Philippines (Luzon)=Kalinga; Central Asia= Tajik, etc.

      When a proper name could not be determined, a question mark has been added.

4. Material, Size

Wherever identified, materials used to construct the instrument are specified. As a general rule, the size indicates the length of the entire instrument. However, in the case of membranophones both the length of the body or frame and the diameter of the membrane are given. Only the materials used in the main parts of the instrument are indicated.

5. Other Data (Frets, Strings, Holes, Tuning, Range, Lowest Pitch of Pipes, Accessories, etc.)

Pitch names: as indicated below

  Tuning: When several tunings are possible, a typical one has been shown. Pitch names given do not necessarily represent absolute pitch.

      Tuning of zithers: indicated in the order from the string closest to the player to the string farthest away.

Tuning of lutes: from left to right, looking at the surface (the area over which strings are stretched) with

theneck pointing upwards

  Finger holes: for wind instruments., the hole farthest from the mouth hole is considered the first hole.

  Accessories: Only those accessories that are directly related to performance, such as plectra, mallets, tuning keys, etc. are indicated.


6. Explanatory Notes

N.B. The smallest increment on the scale included in each photograph represents one centimeter